COMAL/tidlige versioner

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Fra COMAL 75 og COMAL 77 til "Proposal" vedr. COMAL kernen (NUCLEUS COMAL-80) 25. marts 1980 og yderligere justeringer 20. maj 1982 og derefter fastlagt i marts 1983:

"I 1973-1974 definerede han [BRC] sammen med Benedict Løfstedt den første udgave af COMAL (COMmon Algorithmic Language). I 1974-75 var han ansvarlig for den første implementering af sproget. I 1978 definerede Børge COMAL-80, som er en stærkt forbedret udgave af COMAL-75." [2], side 8


”En Første version, COMAL 75, blev implementeret til kørsel på en [DGC’s] NOVA-minidatamat under operativ-systemerne SOS og RDOS af Per Christiansen og Knud Christensen ved Tønder Statsseminarium. Som udgangspunkt for denne implementation anvendes sproget X.BASIC fra DGC*. X.BASIC er stadig en delmængde af COMAL. En version af COMAL - COMAL 77 - som er beskrevet i hovedtræk i dette skrift[3], er implementeret af A/S REGNECENTRALEN på grundlag af Per Christiansen og Knud Christensens arbejde. COMAL 77 indeholder dog væsentlige forbedringer i forhold til den oprindelige COMAL 75.” [3], forordet
* Data General Corporation: EXTENDED BASIC USER'S MANUAL (093-000065-04), fourth rev., sept. 1973.


"The programming language COMAL (COMmon Algorithmic Language) was defined in 1974 by Benedict Loefstedt and the author of this paper. The first version was not really a programming language of its own, but rather a set of extensions to be put on top of an existing BASIC to facilitate structured programming. The first version was implemented in 1974/75 at the States Training College, Tonder, Denmark, by two of my students, Knud Christensen and Per Christiansen. Over the years this version - COMAL 75 - has been substantially improved, and in 1979 I defined a new version of COMAL, the COMAL-80."
"A working group of academics and representatives of several manufactures of microcomputers fu[r]ther improved this version, and it was decided not to have BASIC as a proper subset of the language any more, simply because there are so many versions of this language around that it would be impossible to decide which one to use. Also, since statements like GOTO, GOSUB and ON..GOTO were practically never found i COMAL programs, the group suggested that they should be thrown away. It was finally decided that GOTO should be retained, but only in connection with named labels. It is the firm belief of this author that GOTO linenumber is the worst and most foolish control statement that was ever hit on, and that it will remain a disgrace to early computer history long after BASIC has been consigned to Limbo. [4]


"I slutningen af 70'erne fremkom forskellige COMAL versioner. For at opnå en rimelig grad af ensartethed blev der nedsat en gruppe, som skulle udarbejde forslag til en COMAL standard. Denne gruppe barslede i 1980 med rapporten »COMAL 80 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE, proposal«*. Heraf kommer betegnelsen COMAL 80. Rapporten indeholder et forslag til en »COMAL 80 kerne« og nogle anbefalinger til udvidelser (app. A)**. COMAL 80 kernen er senest (denne kilde er fra 1984) ændret i maj 1982***. Navnet COMAL bør da være forbeholdt COMAL versioner, der som minimum opfylder kravet i COMAL 80 kernen." [4], side 9
*"proposal" til COMAL-80 kernen - se ref.: [5]
**COMAL 80 kernen er fuldt beskrevet i dette appendix (keywords mv.).
***Publiceringsdato af justeringer til COMAL 80 kernen fremgår af app. A: 20. maj 1982.


"This report, written by the working group, is the proposal for the nucleus of the COMAL 80 language. Recommendations for extending the language will appear later." [5], page 2


"The members of the working group [March 1980] included:

Arne Christensen, International Computers Limited A/S
Børge R. Christensen, Tønder State Teachers' College
Steffen Dyhrberg, International Computers Limited A/S
H. B. Hansen, Roskilde University Center
Rolf Molich, Dansk Data Elektronik Aps.
Jørgen Olsen, RC Computer A/S
Jesper Barfod, Digitek Data og Instrumentering
Tom Østerby (editor), Technical University of Denmark."       [5], page 2


Forslaget til COMAL 80 kernen [5] blev også distribueret af A/S REGNECENTRALEN med publikations nr.: RCSL 42-i1516. [8], side i


"COMAL KERNAL blev planlagt i maj 1982 og fastlagt i marts 1983 i et samarbejde mellem de forskellige COMAL producenter. Se appendix G hvor hele COMAL 80 definitionen kaldet COMAL KERNAL, er beskrevet." [7], side 15



1) Borge R. Christensen: The Story of COMAL, COMAL Today, COMAL User Group USA, Toronto, Canada, #25, [1989].

2) Børge R. Christensen: COMAL, NORDISK DATAnytt #2, 1986.

3) Børge R. Christensen: RUN COMAL, A.M. Kjærs Bogtryk, 1977, 2. udg., iii, bilag 1-4, ISBN 87-87697-02-5.

4) Børge R. Christensen: A SHORT SURVEY OF C B M C O M A L - 8 0, Tønder, maj 1981. Fra forordet: ABOUT THE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE COMAL-80

5) Tom Østerby (ed.): Proposal for the nucleus of the COMAL 80 language, The COMAL 80 Language Working Group, Technical University of Denmark,
    Copenhagen, March 25th, 1980
    Henvisninger til denne rapport i: O'Gorman, J. John, An Annotated Bibliography of the COMAL Language, Department of Computer Science and Information Systems,
    University of Limerick, Ireland: UL-CIS-90-4   &   British Library Cat.: System number 007087937

6) Poul Østergaard: Programmering i COMAL 80, Teknisk Forlag, København, © 1984.

7) Len Lindsey: COMAL 80 håndbogen, Teknisk Forlag, København, 1986. / (note: BNF diagrammer)

8) Erik Jeppesen: A Survey of COMAL80 for the RC700 Microcomputer - Piccolo - , Ballerup, juli 1981. RCSL No.: 42-i1780, 2nd ed.